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Max Planck was born on April 23, 1858, in Kiel, Germany, and died on October 4, 1947, in Göttingen, Germany. He was a theoretical physicist who is widely recognized as one of the pioneers of quantum theory.

Planck was married to Marie Merck from 1887 until her death in 1909. They had four children. Later, he remarried, in 1911, to Marga von Hoesslin, with whom he had one son. He studied at the University of Munich and the University of Berlin, where he earned his doctoral degree in 1879. Throughout his career, he worked in several institutions, notably the University of Kiel and the University of Berlin.

His deep interest in the unresolved problems of classical physics inspired him to become a physicist. His determination and innovative thinking led to breakthroughs that fundamentally changed our understanding of the physical world.

Max Planck is perhaps most recognized for his work on quantum theory. He suggested that energy is made of individual units, or quanta, contradicting the classical physics assertion that energy is continuous. This was a revolutionary concept that laid the foundation for quantum physics.

His exploration into the black-body radiation problem eventually led to his quantum hypothesis. Despite its significant implications, his discovery was initially met with resistance by the scientific community.

In 1918, Max Planck received the Nobel Prize in Physics in recognition of his contribution to the development of quantum theory. Despite the challenges he faced during his life, including personal losses and the upheaval of World War II, Planck remained dedicated to his scientific work and contributed significantly to the field of theoretical physics.

Max Planck's most famous formula is arguably the Planck-Einstein relation that connects the energy of a photon with its frequency. This is at the heart of quantum theory.

Introduction to the Planck-Einstein Relation

E = h × ν

Where:

- E: The energy of a photon
- h: Planck's constant
- ν: The frequency of the photon

The following tutorials and calculators are influenced by the work the great physicist Max Planck, each calculator contains a tutorial that explains Max Planck in the field

- Modern Physics Tutorial 19.1 - Thermal Radiation. Photon as the Quantum of Light
- Modern Physics Tutorial 19.3 - The Compton Effect and Pressure of Light
- Modern Physics Tutorial 19.4 - De Broglie Wave
- Spin Magnetic Moment of an Electron based on Bohr Magneton Calculator
- Bohr Radius of Hydrogen-Like Atoms Calculator
- De Broglie Wavelength of Particle Calculator
- Eigen Function of Particle in a Three Dimensional Rectangular Box Calculator
- Electro-Dialysis Calculator
- Electron Gyromagnetic Ratio Calculator
- Energy of Photon Calculator
- Frequency to Energy Calculator
- Magnetic Moment Bohr Magneton Calculator
- Ramsauer Townsend Effect Calculator
- Relativistic Pressure Calculator
- Step Potential Probability Current for Zone II Calculator
- Total Energy of Hydrogen-like Atoms Calculator
- Uncertainty Calculator (Heisenberg's Principle)
- Wavelength to Energy Calculator