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Electro-Dialysis is a process that separates ions from solutions, typically water, by applying an electric field. The technique is rooted in the fields of Physical Chemistry and Environmental Physics. It is extensively used in water treatment and desalination processes. The efficiency of Electro-Dialysis is determined by parameters such as solution normality, flow rate, removal efficiency, the number of cells, and current efficiency.

gram-equivalents/liter | |

liter/second | |

Current = J |

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Electro-Dialysis is a type of membrane filtration where an electric potential is used to drive ion separation. The ions in a solution are moved by the influence of an electric field, making it a critical concept in fields such as Physical Chemistry, Environmental Science and Electrochemistry. This tutorial provides a comprehensive overview of Electro-Dialysis, including its key calculations and formulas.

An important equation in Electro-Dialysis is the Nernst-Planck equation, which is used to calculate the flux of ions. The equation is given as:

J = -D(dc/dx) + uzcF(dc/dx)

- J: The ion flux, which is the rate of ion transport per unit area.
- D: The diffusion coefficient, which is a measure of how quickly ions diffuse through a medium.
- dc/dx: The ion concentration gradient, which is the change in ion concentration over a distance.
- u: The mobility of the ion, which is a measure of how easily the ion can move through a medium.
- zc: The product of the ion charge (z) and the ion concentration (c).
- F: Faraday's constant, representing the electric charge per mole of electrons.

The Nernst-Planck equation was developed by the German physicists Walther Nernst and Max Planck. Nernst received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1920 for his work in Thermochemistry, while Planck is known for his development of quantum theory, which earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

The removal efficiency of an ion in Electro-Dialysis can be calculated using the following formula:

Removal Efficiency = (1 - e^{-τ}) × 100%

- Removal Efficiency: This is the efficiency of the Electro-Dialysis process in removing a particular ion from the solution.
- e: This is the base of the natural logarithm, approximately equal to 2.71828.
- τ: This symbol represents the Thiele Modulus, a dimensionless quantity that considers factors such as the flow rate, normality of the solution, current efficiency, and the number of cells in the Electro-Dialysis setup.

The removal efficiency formula used in Electro-Dialysis is derived from fundamental principles of physics and chemistry and is not attributed to a single individual. The concept of Thiele Modulus was developed by Ernst Thiele, a German-American chemist, in the early 20th century. This concept is fundamental in understanding reaction rates in porous catalysts and has been adapted to many different fields, including Electro-Dialysis.

Electro-Dialysis has a wide range of applications in real life. It is predominantly used in water treatment plants and desalination systems to remove unwanted ions and impurities from water, thereby making it safe for consumption and use.

Key individuals include Walther Nernst and Max Planck, who formulated the Nernst-Planck equation. Their work laid the foundation for our understanding of ion transport in solutions, a concept vital to Electro-Dialysis and numerous other applications in science and engineering.

Ernst Thiele is a key figure in the understanding of processes like Electro-Dialysis, with his work on the Thiele Modulus being pivotal to the discipline. Furthermore, Robert K. Finn, a chemical engineer, made significant contributions to the development and implementation of Electro-Dialysis in the mid-20th century.

- Electro-Dialysis is one of the key techniques employed in the desalination of seawater, contributing to water supply in areas with freshwater scarcity.
- The development of Electro-Dialysis has played a significant role in addressing global water crises, providing a feasible method to produce potable water from non-traditional sources.
- Improvements in Electro-Dialysis technology have contributed to a reduction in energy consumption, helping us move towards a more sustainable future.
- Electro-Dialysis has a wide range of applications, including food processing, pharmaceutical production, and wastewater treatment, in addition to desalination.
- The advancement of Electro-Dialysis technology has greatly improved the efficiency of water desalination, providing a more sustainable solution for water scarcity.
- The development of Electro-Dialysis has significantly impacted the fields of chemistry and environmental science, providing a viable method for separating ions from solutions.

Electro-Dialysis is a vital concept in Physical Chemistry and Environmental Physics, playing a significant role in water treatment and desalination. A comprehensive understanding of this topic enables us to devise efficient and sustainable methods for water purification, contributing to addressing water scarcity issues worldwide.

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