# Hall Electrical Conductivity Calculator

Electrical conductivity is a fundamental concept in the fields of Electromagnetism, Semiconductor Physics, and Quantum Physics. It characterizes the ability of a material to conduct electric current. The Hall Effect, discovered by Edwin Hall in 1879, has played an instrumental role in our understanding and measurement of electrical conductivity. In this article, we'll explore the concept of Hall Electrical Conductivity, its associated calculations, and formulas, while delving into its practical applications and historical significance.

 Conductivity siemens/meter Magnetic Flux Density (B) Electron Number Density (n0 Electronic Charge (e) Direct Conductivity siemens/meter
 Hall Electrical Conductivity (σH) = siemens/meter

## Example Formula

The Hall conductivity (σH) is given by the formula:

σH = n × e / B

Where:

1. σH: Represents the Hall conductivity. It measures the ability of a material to conduct electric current when subjected to a magnetic field.
2. n: Represents the electron number density, which is the number of free electrons per unit volume.
3. e: Represents the elementary charge, which is the magnitude of the charge of an electron, approximately 1.602 × 10-19 C (Coulombs).
4. B: Represents the magnetic flux density, measured in Tesla (T).

## Who wrote/refined the formula

Edwin Hall, an American physicist, discovered the Hall effect in 1879 while he was a doctoral student at Johns Hopkins University. Since then, this formula and concept have been refined and applied in various fields beyond physics, like electrical engineering and materials science, to understand and control the properties of semiconductors, magnetic field sensors, and to measure fundamental physical constants.

## Real Life Application

One of the most prevalent real-world applications of Hall conductivity is in the development and operation of Hall effect sensors. These sensors are used extensively in various industries. For example, they are used in automotive systems to measure wheel speed (and hence control anti-lock braking systems) or to detect the position of the crankshaft or camshaft. These sensors leverage the Hall effect to output a voltage that is proportional to the magnetic field, providing critical data for system control and feedback.

## Key individuals in the discipline

Edwin Hall is a standout figure in this field due to his discovery of the Hall effect. His work, first published in 1879, introduced the world to a new method of measuring electrical conductivity and magnetic fields. Over a century later, Klaus von Klitzing received the 1985 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the quantum Hall effect, which expanded upon Hall's original work and introduced quantum properties into the phenomenon.

## Interesting Facts

1. The Hall effect and its associated formulas are vital in the manufacture and operation of spacecraft propulsion. Ion thrusters, which are used to maneuver satellites and space probes, depend on the Hall effect.
2. The understanding and application of the Hall effect have revolutionized the electronics industry, helping to drive the rapid growth and miniaturization of electronic devices.
3. The quantum Hall effect, which demonstrates the quantization of Hall conductivity, has led to the establishment of a new standard for electrical resistance.

## Conclusion

The discovery and exploration of Hall Electrical Conductivity have had profound impacts on our understanding of electromagnetism and quantum physics, and have had wide-ranging applications in numerous technological fields. Its impact continues to be felt today, as scientists and engineers use this principle to innovate and improve technologies in fields as diverse as electronics, automotive systems, and space exploration.

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