Antenna Array Calculator

Antenna arrays are a fundamental concept in wireless communication systems and radio astronomy. They are collections of individual antennas operating together to transmit or receive radio waves more efficiently. They are pivotal in the fields of electromagnetism and radio wave propagation.

Antenna Array Calculator
Antenna Array Calculator Results
Array Factor (AF) =

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The radiation pattern of a uniformly spaced linear array can be expressed using the following formula:

P(θ) = AF × EF


  1. AF (Array Factor) represents the combined effect of the individual antenna elements in the array. It depends on the number of elements, spacing between elements, and the phase difference.
  2. EF (Element Factor) is the radiation pattern of the individual antenna element.

Who wrote/refined the formula

The array theory and associated formulas have been the collective work of many researchers over the years. The fundamental principles of antenna arrays can be traced back to the work of Karl Ferdinand Braun, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909 for his contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy. However, the formula itself has been refined and expanded over the years by numerous researchers in the field of wireless communications and radio astronomy.

Real Life Application

Antenna arrays are widely used in modern technology. For example, in cell phone networks, antenna arrays help to improve signal quality and bandwidth efficiency. In radio astronomy, antenna arrays such as the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico, USA, are used to study celestial bodies by capturing radio waves from space.

Key individuals in the discipline

Karl Ferdinand Braun, a German inventor, significantly contributed to the development of wireless telegraphy. He introduced the concept of antenna arrays and won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909 for his work. Other key figures include Guglielmo Marconi, known as the father of long-distance radio transmission, and Robert Wilson and Arno Penzias, who discovered cosmic microwave background radiation using an antenna array.

Interesting Facts

  1. The Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico, USA, is one of the world's premier astronomical radio observatories, which consists of 27 independent antennas forming a huge array.
  2. Phased array antennas, a type of antenna array, have been fundamental in radar technology used for air traffic control, weather forecasting, and military applications.
  3. Antenna arrays are also being used in the new generation of wireless communication technology, 5G, to improve network capacity and efficiency.


Antenna arrays play a crucial role in wireless communication, from mobile networks to astronomical observatories. The fundamental principle of antenna arrays, their calculation, and formulation are essential for anyone interested in the field of wireless communications and signal processing. As technology continues to evolve, the importance and application of antenna arrays are expected to grow exponentially.

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